Kilimanjaro Plants and Trees

  • Share this:
Kilimanjaro Plants and Trees

Mount Kilimanjaro is an iconic landmark located in Tanzania, Africa. Standing tall at 19,341 feet, it is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest free-standing mountain in the world. Known for its stunning views and challenging hiking trails, Kilimanjaro is also home to a unique ecosystem, with an abundance of plant and animal life. In this article, we will focus on one of the most crucial components of this ecosystem - the plants and trees of Kilimanjaro.

The Importance of plants and Trees on Kilimanjaro

The plants and trees on Mount Kilimanjaro play a vital role in maintaining the delicate ecological balance of the mountain. They are not only essential for the survival of the mountain's diverse animal life, but they also have a significant impact on the local communities living around the mountain. The flora on Kilimanjaro also provides essential functions such as soil erosion control, water regulation, and carbon sequestration.

Unique Plant Species on Kilimanjaro

Kilimanjaro is home to over 1,200 plant species, with many of them being endemic to the mountain. These plants have evolved to adapt to the extreme climate and altitude of the mountain, making them unique and highly specialized. Some of the notable plant species on Kilimanjaro include the Kilimanjaro Groundsel, a giant alpine plant that can grow up to 30 feet tall, and the rare Kilimanjaro Impatiens, a striking flowering plant found only on the northern slopes of the mountain.

The Montane and Alpine Plant Zones

The plants and trees on Kilimanjaro can be categorized into two main zones - the Montane zone and the Alpine zone. The Montane zone is the lower part of the mountain, and it is characterized by lush forests and heathlands. Here, you can find species such as the African Camphor, which is known for its medicinal properties, and the Red hot Poker, a vibrant flowering plant that attracts a variety of birds and insects.

As you climb higher towards the Alpine zone, the vegetation thins out, giving way to alpine grassland. This zone is harsh, with strong winds, freezing temperatures, and low levels of oxygen. The plants found here are mostly low-lying herbs and dwarf shrubs, such as the Giant Lobelia and Alpine Bellflower. These plants have adapted to survive in this harsh environment, with thick, woolly leaves to protect them from the cold and a shallow root system to absorb nutrients from the rocky terrain.

Here is a list of Some Plants and trees Kilimanjaro:

Lobelia Deckenii

The Lobelia deckenii, also known as the Giant Lobelia, is a stunning plant found on the upper slopes of Kilimanjaro. Growing up to 25 feet tall, it is one of the most iconic plants on the mountain. Its thick, woolly leaves and large stature allow it to thrive in the harsh alpine conditions, providing a beautiful contrast against the rocky landscape.

Heather (Erica)

The heather plant, known scientifically as Erica, is a common sight in the Montane zone of Kilimanjaro. With over 500 species globally, the Erica plant has adapted to thrive in various climates and elevations. On Kilimanjaro, you can find several varieties, including the Yellow Bushman's Candle, which has yellow drooping flowers, and the Pink Marsh Rose, with its distinctive pink flowers.

Dendrosenecio Kilimanjari

The Dendrosenecio kilimanjari, also known as the Kilimanjaro giant groundsels, is a striking plant found in the alpine zone of Kilimanjaro. These tall, tree-like plants can reach heights of up to 16 feet and have a unique life cycle of growing a new crown of leaves each year. They are essential for controlling soil erosion and provide shelter for small animals, such as rodents and birds.

Red Hot Poker

The Red hot poker plant, also known as Kniphofia, is a brightly colored flowering plant found in the lower montane zone of Kilimanjaro. Its long, tubular flowers in shades of red, orange, and yellow attract various birds and insects, making it a popular spot for birdwatching. In addition, the roots of this plant are used by the local Chagga tribe to make traditional medicines.

Hebenstretia Dentata

The Hebenstretia dentata, commonly known as African wild sage, is a hardy shrub found in the Montane zone of Kilimanjaro. This plant has long, pointed leaves, and beautiful purple flowers that have a strong aromatic scent. It is used in traditional medicine for various ailments, such as stomach pains and respiratory infections.

Fireball Lily

The Fireball Lily, also known as the Scarlet Fireball, is a striking red and yellow flower found on the slopes of Kilimanjaro. This flower only blooms during the rainy season, making it a rare sight for climbers. It is considered to have medicinal properties for treating skin infections and stomach ailments.

Protea Kilimandscharica

The Protea kilimandscharica, also known as the Kilimanjaro Protea, is a rare and endangered plant found in the montane heathlands of Kilimanjaro. It is characterized by its large, showy flowers and its thick, leathery leaves, which help it survive in the harsh mountain climate. Although it is threatened by deforestation and climate change, efforts are being made to protect and preserve this species.

Stoebe Kilimandscharica

The Stoebe kilimandscharica, also known as the Kilimanjaro everlasting, is a shrub found on the higher slopes of the mountain. It has small, everlasting flowers that range in color from white to purple. This plant is essential for soil erosion control and is also regarded for its medicinal properties in traditional medicine.

Everlasting Flowers

The everlasting flowers, also known as the Helichrysum, are a genus of flowering plants found on Kilimanjaro's slopes. These plants are known for their ability to tolerate extreme conditions, making them a common sight in the alpine zone. They have small, yellow flowers that maintain their color even after drying, hence the name "everlasting."


The tussock is a grass species that grows in dense, clumpy forms along the alpine and subalpine zones of Kilimanjaro. Its deeply-embedded roots play a vital role in stabilizing the mountain's loose volcanic soils, preventing landslides and soil erosion. It also provides a food source for some of the mountain's wildlife, such as buffalo and elephants.

Old Man’s Beard

The Old Man's Beard, scientifically known as Usnea, is a unique type of lichen found on Kilimanjaro. This lichen is made up of algae and fungi and grows hanging from trees and rocks in long, thread-like strands. It is sensitive to air pollution and is regarded as a good indicator of the mountain's air quality.

The Threat of Deforestation

Despite its protected status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Kilimanjaro's forests are under threat from deforestation. The growing population around the mountain and the demand for firewood, timber, and agricultural land have led to widespread clearing of the forests. This has had a devastating impact on the local ecosystem, leading to soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and reduced water flow in the rivers originating from the mountain.

Efforts Towards Conservation

To protect the unique flora of Kilimanjaro, several initiatives have been taken to conserve the mountain's forests. The Kilimanjaro Reforestation Project, for instance, aims to restore the damaged parts of the forest by planting new trees and educating the local communities on sustainable land use practices. The Tanzanian government has also implemented strict regulations on logging and designated protected areas on the mountain to preserve its biodiversity.


The plants and trees of Mount Kilimanjaro are a vital part of its ecosystem, playing a crucial role in preserving the delicate balance of the mountain's environment. With conservation efforts in place, we can hope to continue to enjoy the beauty and diversity of Kilimanjaro's flora for generations to come. As visitors to this stunning natural wonder, it is our responsibility to leave no trace and help in the efforts towards its preservation.

Kilimanjaro National Park

Kilimanjaro National Park